International Code of Oenological Practices

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Maceration (General sheet)

II.1.16 Maceration (general sheet)


Process consisting of leaving the solid and liquid parts of harvested grapes in contact for a more or less extended period of time. Maceration takes place before, simultaneously with or after fermentation.


Dissolution of substances contained within grapes, notably phenolic compounds, aromas and their precursors.


The objective may be achieved by:

a)        Maceration according to the traditional technique of fermentation on skins (II.1.6)

b)       Carbonic maceration (II.1.7)

c)        Maceration after heating the harvested grapes (II.1.8)

d)       Prefermentative cold maceration for making white wine (II.1.14)

e)       Prefermentative cold maceration for making red wine (II.1.15)

f)         Warm post-fermentation of red grapes, known as warm final maceration (II.2.3.9)

g)        Maceration of raisined grapes or their pomace in wine (II.2.3.10)

Recommendation of OIV

Refer to the practices and treatments indicated above